Aim of the Ph.D. Today, the most wide-spread used targeted drug in chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a TNF inhibitor (TNFi). TNFi is effective in 1/3 to 2/3 of the cases. Therefore, being able to predict who will respond to the treatment will help select the best treatment to the individual patient. Based on the idea that the gut mucosa is the key organ for the disease process, single-cell transcriptomics, proteomics, PTMomics (the study of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation), and metabolomics will be applied to patient intestinal biopsies. ETC.